Occurrence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotypes in Uganda and Tanzania (2003 to 2015): A Review and Implications for Prospective Regional Disease Control

  •  Susan D. Kerfua    
  •  Moses T. Dhikusooka    
  •  Alice L. Mulondo    
  •  James Bugeza    
  •  Fredrick Kabi    
  •  Shirima Gabriel    
  •  Lughano Kusiluka    
  •  Chrisostom Ayebazibwe    
  •  Sarah Cleaveland    
  •  Daniel T. Haydon    


Endemic foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) presents a global economic challenge to the livestock industry. The progressive control pathway for FMD (PCP-FMD) specifies successive steps through which a country/region can reduce FMD virus circulation and impact. These steps are reliant on understanding and obtaining knowledge on FMD epidemiology, to inform development of appropriate disease interventions like vaccination and quarantine programs. Currently, Uganda and Tanzania are in the early stages of the PCP-FMD.

This review was undertaken to determine FMDV serotype distribution in Uganda and Tanzania between 2003 and 2015. The paper also presents the vaccine strains used in both countries for the same period viz avis the circulating topotypes. The review highlights four (O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2) and five (O, A, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3) serotypes that occurred in Uganda and Tanzania respectively in the thirteen year period. Observations revealed that reported circulating serotypes O and A in the two countries belonged to similar topotypes, East African 2 (EA-2) and AFRICA respectively. The SAT 1 viruses in Tanzania belonged to topotype I and differed from the Ugandan SAT 1s that belonged to topotype IV. Similarly, the SAT 2s in both countries belonged to different topotypes: IV in Tanzania and I in Uganda. This review additionally, underscores the spatial distribution of FMDV serotypes in Uganda and Tanzania and highlights regions in both countries that had high serotype diversity.

The paper recommends definitive disease diagnoses, molecular serotype characterisation and matched vaccination deployment for improved disease control.

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