Model Equivalence in General Linear Models: Set-to-Zero, Sum-to-Zero Restrictions, and Extra Sum of Squares Method

  •  Bashiru Saeed    
  •  S. K. Appiah    
  •  N. N. N. Nuamah    
  •  Louis Munyakazi    
  •  A. A. I. Musah    


The paper is drawn from the authors' experience in teaching general and generalized linear fixed effects models at the university level. The steps followed include model specification, model estimation, and hypothesis testing in general linear model setting. Among these steps, estimation of model parameters such as the main effect least squares means and contrasts were among the most challenging for students. Since no unique solution exists, students are first exposed to the equivalence between two popular techniques that an over-parameterized model can be subjected to in order to obtain the parameter estimates. This is particularly important because existing software do not necessarily follow the same path to produce an Analysis of Variance (or Covariance) of the general, generalized linear fixed or mixed effects models. These steps are generally hidden from the users. It is therefore crucial for the students to understand the intermediary processes that ultimately produce the same results regardless of the software one uses. The equivalent techniques, the set-to-zero and sum-to-zero restrictions, used to obtain solution of the normal equations of the fixed effects model, are presented. The relationship between them is also presented and in the process, data analysis makes use of two important concepts: the generalized inverse and estimable function. The invariance property of estimable functions is also explained in details in addition to the extra sum of squares principle which is introduced to supplement the other concepts. To exemplify these ideas and put them in practice, a simple one-way treatment structure analysis of variance is performed.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • ISSN(Print): 1927-7032
  • ISSN(Online): 1927-7040
  • Started: 2012
  • Frequency: bimonthly

Journal Metrics

  • h-index (December 2021): 20
  • i10-index (December 2021): 51
  • h5-index (December 2021): N/A
  • h5-median(December 2021): N/A

( The data was calculated based on Google Scholar Citations. Click Here to Learn More. )