Mechanical Proof of the Maxwell-Boltzmann Speed Distribution With Analytical Integration

  •  Hejie Lin    
  •  Tsung-Wu Lin    


The Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution is the probability distribution that describes the speeds of the particles of ideal gases. The Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution is valid for both un-mixed particles (one type of particle) and mixed particles (two types of particles). For mixed particles, both types of particles follow the Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution. Also, the most probable speed is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass. The Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution of mixed particles is based on kinetic theory; however, it has never been derived from a mechanical point of view. This paper proves the Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution and the speed ratio of mixed particles based on probability analysis and Newton’s law of motion. This paper requires the probability density function (PDF) ψ^ab(u_a; v_a, v_b) of the speed u_a  of the particle with mass M_a  after the collision of two particles with mass M_a  in speed v_a  and mass M_b  in speed v_b . The PDF ψ^ab(u_a; v_a, v_b)  in integral form has been obtained before. This paper further performs the exact integration from the integral form to obtain the PDF ψ^ab(u_a; v_a, v_b)  in an evaluated form, which is used in the following equation to get new distribution P_new^a(u_a)  from old distributions P_old^a(v_a) and P_old^b(v_b). When P_old^a(v_a) and P_old^b(v_b)  are the Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distributions, the integration P_new^a(u_a)  obtained analytically is exactly the Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution.

P_new^a(u_a)=∫_0^∞ ∫_0^∞ ψ^ab(u_a;v_a,v_b) P_old^a(v_a) P_old^b(v_b) dv_a dv_b,    a,b = 1 or 2

The mechanical proof of the Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution presented in this paper reveals the unsolved mechanical mystery of the Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution since it was proposed by Maxwell in 1860. Also, since the validation is carried out in an analytical approach, it proves that there is no theoretical limitation of mass ratio to the Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distribution. This provides a foundation and methodology for analyzing the interaction between particles with an extreme mass ratio, such as gases and neutrinos.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • ISSN(Print): 1927-7032
  • ISSN(Online): 1927-7040
  • Started: 2012
  • Frequency: bimonthly

Journal Metrics

  • h-index (December 2021): 20
  • i10-index (December 2021): 51
  • h5-index (December 2021): N/A
  • h5-median(December 2021): N/A

( The data was calculated based on Google Scholar Citations. Click Here to Learn More. )