Assessment of Hygiene Practices and Identification of Critical Control Points Relating to the Production of Skewered Meat Sold in N’Djamena-Chad

  •  Abdelsalam Tidjani    
  •  Abdelsalam Doutoum    
  •  Brahim Otchom    
  •  Mahamat Bechir    
  •  Hourra Chemi    
  •  Fatiou Toukourou    
  •  Comlan Souza    


Meat is a food of choice because of its nutritional quality. Grills are regularly consumed in Africa and particularly in the Sahelian countries. These are very popular consumer products. However, they can be contaminated by various microorganisms and cause food poisoning if the meat is not handled in hygienic conditions. In order to contribute to improving the quality of these products, we have followed the steps in production of meat skewers by the method of “5M” of Ishikawa. The “HACCP decision tree” model was used to determine the Critical Control Points (CCP). Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a method and principles of management of food safety. The results of monitoring procedures for making meat skewers showed many shortcomings in hygiene. Six (06) critical points were determined. As for testing, we conducted microbiological analyzes on fifty (50) units of samples corresponding to ten (10) different types of products collected at different stages of production. Compared to AFNOR (French Association of Standardization), criteria for cooked and dehydrated soups and considering the analytical variability associated with the methods of analysis, our results indicate that the products contaminated with germs indicating failure to comply with hygiene. Samples analyzed presented at different stages of production compliance rate of 40% for total bacteria (30 °C), 30% for total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms (44 °C). The rate of non-compliance is 40% compared with sulphite-reducing anaerobes. Molds identified in meat skewered and ingredients are Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium sp and Geotrichum sp. Salmonella, S. aureus and yeasts are absent in the samples. Training on good hygiene practices is required at vendors in order to ensure the hygienic quality of grilled meats.

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