Multi-Group Analysis: Testing Moderating Effects for the Causal Structure Model of Self-Action-Outcome (Sao Model)

  •  Norida Abdullah    
  •  Mohd Shamsuri Md Saad    
  •  Subatira Balakrishnan    
  •  Asiah Mohd Pilus    
  •  Ahmad Tajuddin Othman    


This study focuses on testing the moderating effects based on gender, academic performance, faculty andresidential setting based on Self-Action-Outcome (SAO) model that was developed by the researchers. Thismodel examined the relationship between self-esteem, job-search intensity and career decision-makingself-efficacy among undergraduate students. Several instruments were used to develop this model were, theRosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Job-Search Intensity Scale, and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale.Cluster sampling procedure was used in recruiting the participants. Data were collected using a self-reportedquestionnaire from 678 undergraduate students and were tested with confirmatory factor analysis to obtain threebest-fit measurement models from the three latent variables. The results showed that gender, academicperformance, faculty and residential setting did not moderate the hypothesized SAO model which means that thehypothesized SAO model is a good model for undergraduate students. Implications of the findings for socialwork practice such as guidance counsellor, research, theory, policy and education were also discussed.

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