Dietary Sources of Calcium, Vitamin D, and the Pattern of Dairy Products Consumption in Five Ethnic Groups in the United States
- Sangita Sharma
- Fariba Kolahdooz
- Shelly Vik
- Tony Sheehy
- Laurence Kolonel
The objective of this study was to describe dietary sources of calcium and vitamin D among five ethnic groups in the United States. Cross-sectional dietary data were collected using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire from 186,916 participants in the Multiethnic cohort representing five ethnic groups (African American, Latino, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian, and Caucasian), aged 45-75 years living in Los Angeles County and the state of Hawaii between 1993 and 1996. Nutrient intakes for calcium and vitamin D were analyzed based on a unique food composition table which was extended and adapted from the USDA food composition database. Dairy products were the greatest contributor to calcium intake in all groups, but the percent contribution varied considerably between ethnic sex groups from 18.6% (Japanese American men) to 37.8% (Caucasian women). Dairy products were also the greatest contributors to vitamin D intake among all ethnic-sex groups except Native Hawaiian and Japanese American men, for whom fish was the top contributor (40.7 and 42.5% respectively). Low-fat milk was the top source (16.0-21.9%) of dairy products in all ethnic-sex groups except Japanese American men and women and Caucasian women. The data identified dietary sources that can be targeted by nutrition intervention programs and dietitians working with ethnic/racial populations at high risk of inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D.
- Bella DongEditorial Assistant