Bioavailability of Mineral Nutrients in Plantain Based Product Enriched With Bambara Groundnut Protein Concentrate

David B. Kiin-Kabari, Sunday Y. Giami, Boisa Ndokiari


Plantain based products (amala, cookies, bread and cakes) enriched with bambara groundnut protein concentrate were produced. Total minerals content of the products were investigated using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A total of six essential minerals: iron, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium were determined. The bioavailability of these minerals was studied using pepsin and pancreatin enzymes in-vitro digestion method. The products developed were high in potassium, iron and phosphorous and low in sodium. However not all the minerals detected were bioavailable. Only 59.7% and 68.1% of potassium were available in soluble forms in bread and ‘amala’, respectively while 60.0% and 64.8% of iron were released in soluble forms in ‘amala’ and cookies and these values are significantly higher, compared to 53.0% Fe and 50.2% Fe released as soluble fractions in bread and cakes, respectively. The Ca/P ratio for cakes and bread are 1.1 and 0.8, respectively which is significantly higher (P > 0.05) compared to Ca/P ratio for ‘amala’ (0.4) and cookies (0.5). Therefore, the developed cakes and bread can serve as good sources of calcium and phosphorous which are considered essential for bone formation and teeth development in children.


plantain products, protein concentrate, minerals, bioavailability

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Journal of Food Research   ISSN 1927-0887 (Print)   ISSN 1927-0895 (Online)  E-mail:

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