Effect of Drying Methods and Ultrasonication in Improving the Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Apple Pomace Powder
- Umesh Lohani
- Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan
AbstractAlthough extrusion is a promising process to develop ready to eat cereals and snacks, thermal treatment to raw material during extrusion results in degradation of phenolic compounds. Therefore, an approach was made to enhance the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AA) of apple pomace (AP) prior to extrusion process. In this study, AP powder was naturally fermented (F) for 12 h and then was subjected to ultrasonication (U) at various conditions [25, 37, and 50 µm ultrasonication amplitude (UA) for 1, 2, and 3 min of ultrasonication time (UT)]. AP was then dried in oven (O) and microwave (MW), separately and thus four drying methods, i.e. OF-OU, OF-MWU, MWF-OU, MWF-MWU were used in combinations. Full factorial design was used for experimental plan and results were analyzed using statistical software. It was observed that drying method significantly affected the TPC and AA of AP powder followed by UA. UT did not have any significant effect on TPC, and AA. Maximum TPC, and AA observed for the AP powder dried in MW after fermentation and ultrasonication (MWF-MWU) at 50 µm UA for 3 min UT were 372.98 mg GAE/100g DW, and 729.67 µmol TE/100 g DW, respectively. MWF-MWU drying exhibited a more prominent disrupted and porous structure of AP powder compared with that of OF-OU drying.
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- Bella DongEditorial Assistant