The Role of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in the Metabolic Syndrome and Its Regulation

Martha Phelan, David M. Kerins


Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lipid abnormalities, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, are cardiovascular risk factors that are frequently present in patients with obesity. Haemostatic and fibrinolytic disturbances are also considered to be important risk factors for CVD hence, a potential link between CVD, obesity and the metabolic syndrome arises. Regulation of the fibrinolytic system can occur at the level of plasminogen activators and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). PAI-1, a glycoprotein, is one of the most important inhibitors of fibrinolysis. Regulation of this serine protease inhibitor may have a beneficial effect on other conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome. Human adipose tissue is a source of PAI-1. PAI-1 production may in turn be controlled by a number of hormones and cytokines which are secreted by adipose tissue in addition to dietary factors. In this review we summarise the current knowledge regarding the role of altered fibrinolytic function in obesity, CVD and hence the metabolic syndrome. Regulatory factors including different dietary components, weight loss and dietary intervention will also be discussed.


metabolic syndrome, CVD, PAI-1, dietary factors, weight loss

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Journal of Food Research   ISSN 1927-0887 (Print)   ISSN 1927-0895 (Online)  E-mail:

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