Fatty Acid Profiles of Western Canadian Bison (Bison bison) Meat

Tyler D. Turner, Jessica L. Pilfold, Jessica Jensen, Dipesh Prema, Kingsley K. Donkor, Jonathan D. Van Hamme, Bruno Cinel, Jayson K. Galbraith, John S. Church

Abstract


Western Canadian bison meat is renowned for its natural healthfulness; however, studies on the dietary effects on the fatty acid (FA) profile are limited. Herein, we evaluated the FA profiles of retail bison (longissimus dorsi) representing grain-fed (Grain), grass-fed (Grass) and grass-fed plus oat and pea screening supplement from early (Early-con) or late (Late-con) season harvested finishing regimes. Bison meat contained less than 30 mg fat/g meat, and was lowest for Early-con bison. Proportions of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) were greatest in Early-con and lowest for Late-con bison. Early-con bison had the greatest proportion of omega-6 (n-6) FA and Late-con bison the lowest, yet as mg/g meat, total n-6 content did not differ. In contrast, Grass and Early-con bison had greater proportions of 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, 22:6n-3 and total omega-3 (n-3) FA. The n-3 content for Grain, Grass, Early-con and Late-con bison were 38, 90, 69 and 69 mg/100 g meat, respectively. The 3:1 n-6/n-3 ratios of Grass, Early-con and Late-con bison were superior to the 7:1 ratio of Grain bison. Proportions of potentially beneficial biohydrogenation intermediates (BI), including t11-18:1 and c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid, were greater for Early-con and Late-con bison. Proportions of cis-monounsaturated FA were similar for both Grain and Grass bison; however, Late-con was greater than Early-con bison. Cumulatively, Grass, Early-con and Late-con bison were more desirable compared to Grain on account of greater proportions of n-3 FA and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio. Furthermore, seasonal supplementation enhanced the BI proportions with potential beneficial bioactivity in Early-con and Late-con bison.


Keywords


biohydrogenation intermediates, forage-fed, grain-fed, health effects, pea screenings, polyunsaturated fatty acid, trans-monounsaturated fatty acid

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/jfr.v3n6p146

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Journal of Food Research   ISSN 1927-0887 (Print)   ISSN 1927-0895 (Online)  E-mail: jfr@ccsenet.org

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