Roselle Calyces Particle Size Effect on the Physicochemical and Phytochemicals Characteristics
- Sandro Cid-Ortega
- Jose Guerrero-Beltran
The effect of average particle size (APS), type of solvent, and extraction times (ET) on the physicochemical (moisture, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity, color, water activity (aw), density), and phytochemical (total anthocyanins and phenols content)propertiesin Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) calyces was analyzed. The phytochemical properties evaluation was performed using a factorial design 2×3×3: two APS (median diameters, d50, of 0.55 ± 0.016 (fine powder) and 0.97 ± 0.034 (ground powder) mm), three solvents (water, 2% citric acid, and 50% ethanol) and three ET (30, 45, and 60 min). All extractions were performed at 50 °C. The APS was determined by sieve analysis using Tyler sieves of different number of mesh. Regarding physicochemical properties, no significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in moisture content, pH, and titratable acidity; however, the 0.55 mm fine powder (FP) of Hibiscus calyces had lower aw(0.37±0.01) and higher TSS (5.53±0.05%) than the 0.97 mm ground powder (GP). The extracts obtained fromGP showed a deeper red color than those of FP. The best combination of independent variables, in order to obtain the highest concentration of anthocyanins (451.4±28.1 mg/100 g d.s.) and total phenols (2016.2 ± 159.8 mg/100 g d.s.) were APS of 0.55 mm, 50% ethanol, and ETof 30 min.
- Bella DongEditorial Assistant