Liquid Carbon Dioxide Use in the Extraction of Extra Virgin Olive Oil From Olive Paste
- Raffaele Romano
- Nadia Manzo
- Immacolata Montefusco
- Annalisa Romano
- Antonello Santini
In this study the use of liquid carbon dioxide, CO2, for extraction of oil from olive paste (Peranzana cultivar) were examined and extracted oil was compared with oils obtained by centrifugation, pressure and use of chemical solvent.
It is well known that the use of CO2 has many advantages: miscibility with a wide range of molecules, food safety, non-flammability, absence of residues in the extract, possibility of total solvent recovery and no production of olive mill waste water that are highly polluting for the environment and require expansive disposal.
Samples were subjected to the following analyses: determination of Free Fatty Acids (FFA), Peroxides Value (PV), Spectrophotometric Indices, Fatty Acids Composition (FA), determination of biophenols content and determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). All samples showed FFA, PV and ?K values within the limits established by law for extra-virgin olive oil. The use of CO2 did not catalyze hydrolysis, oxidation and condensation of double bonds. Centrifuged oils and oils extracted with carbon dioxide presented the lowest PV and FFA values. Extraction with liquid carbon dioxide contributed to an increasing of phenolic content with a value of 270.5 mg/kg, a value twice that of the oils extracted with centrifugation (135.3 mg/kg) or pressure methods (173.2 mg/kg). Oil extracted with liquid carbon dioxide showed the greatest amount of t-2-octenal and t-2-heptenal, giving herbaceous and pungent notes. Moreover the presence of aromatic compounds such as limonene, generally absent in olive oils, was only detected in the sample extracted with liquid carbon dioxide.
- Bella DongEditorial Assistant