Physicochemical Characteristics of Yam Bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) Seed Proteins

Abbas Kisambira, John H. Muyonga, Yusuf B. Byaruhanga, Phinehas Tukamuhabwa, Silver Tumwegamire, Wolfgang Gruenberg

Abstract


This study sought to determine the physicochemical and functional properties of yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) seed proteins. Pachyrhizus erosus seeds from two accessions (UYB 06 and UYB 07) were milled into flours and then defatted. A portion of the defatted flour was used for production of protein isolates and protein fractions. The physicochemical and functional properties, in vitro digestibility and electrophoretic pattern of the flour and protein isolate were determined. The results showed that albumins (53.3%) were the dominant protein fraction followed by globulins (18.7%), glutelins (8.8%) and prolamins (2.7%). Regarding functional properties, the Pachyrhizus erosus seed protein isolates exhibited 8% of least gelation concentration, water absorption capacity of 3.0 g g-1, oil absorption capacity of 0.8 g g-1, protein solubility of 81.0%, foaming capacity of 37.1%, foam stability of 73.8%, emulsion activity of 13.8% and emulsion stability of 9.2%. In vitro protein digestibility of the raw and cooked beans was 87.6% and 84.3%, respectively. The electrophoretic pattern of Pachyrhizus erosus protein showed major bands corresponding to molecular weight 13.3, 15, 29.8, 54.4 and above 84.7 kDa. The results, suggest that Pachyrhizus erosus seed protein has potential for use in both food and non-food applications such as films and coating.


Keywords


Pachyrhizus erosus seed protein, yam bean, functional properties, electrophoretic pattern, protein fractionation and in vitro protein digestibility

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/jfr.v3n6p168

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Journal of Food Research   ISSN 1927-0887 (Print)   ISSN 1927-0895 (Online)  E-mail: jfr@ccsenet.org

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