Characterization of Pectin from Pulp and Peel of Ugandan Cooking Bananas at Different Stages of Ripening
- Diriisa Mugampoza
- Samuel Gafuma
- Peacekind Kyosaba
- Richard Namakajjo
East African highland cooking bananas (EA-AAA) are a staple food and major source of calories for Ugandans. Cooking bananas are considerably wasted along the postharvest chain majorly due to poor handling and ripening. Banana waste is a potential source of secondary products such as pectin, wine, beer to mention a few. The aim of this study was to extract and characterize pectin from selected cooking bananas at various stages of ripening in order to assess their potential for commercial pectin production. Pectin was extracted from the bananas at five stages of ripening i.e. stages 0 (green maturity), 1, 2, 5 and 7. Extracted pectin at stages 2, 5 & 7 was characterized. Pectin yield from banana pulp decreased significantly with ripening (P<0.05) from between 18.1 to 22.65% at green maturity to between 0.65 to 1.28% at stage 7 of ripening. Pectin yield from banana peels was generally lower decreasing from between 5.34 to 6.61% at green maturity to between 1.01 to 1.38% at stage 7. The equivalent weight (1774 to 10144) of the pectin at selected stages of ripening was not significantly different (P>0.05) except individually. Methoxyl content was not significantly different among cultivars (P>0.05), however, it increased significantly through ripening stages (P<0.05). Anhydrouronic acid (AUA) ranged between 24.51 to 67.38% and increased with stage of ripening. AUA of pectin from pulp and peel did not differ significantly (P>0.05). The degree of esterification at each of the three stages was generally high (77 to 94%) implying high gelling power. These results showed that purity of pectin increases while yield decreases with ripening and that banana pectin has a high degree of esterification implying rapid set pectin. Thus, banana peel and pulp can be good sources of industrial pectin.
- Bella DongEditorial Assistant