Financing a PPP Project: Sources and Financial Instruments—Case Study from China

  •  Nguyen Ngoc Linh    
  •  Xiao Wan    
  •  Hoang Thi Thuy    


The Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model is often referred to as a new effective way in funding issue solving for infrastructure development and management. A PPP model project involves numerous of stakeholders and the most typical and basic PPP model comprised of three actors: Government, the private sector and financial institutions. Based on the features of PPPs, the differences between PPP model and traditional financing methods are clearly demonstrated through the financing period; investment and financing subject; property ownership; financing credit basis; financing purposes; source of repayment; guarantee; and degree of financing risk.

On the other hand, the selection of a suitable structure from the financial source is based on the choice of the best combination of equity and debt. In terms of project financing structure, it can be divided into three main sections: equity contributions, debt contributions and mezzanine/Subordinated contributions. Moreover, according to the characteristics of different PPPs, the financial structure of the project will be determined to optimize the financial benefits of the project. Furthermore, for each stage of the project, financial instruments will be used appropriately.

This paper will deliver a summary and review of PPP projects, as well as the stakeholders involved in implementing a project under a basic PPP model. In addition, this paper will discuss the financial structure of a project, and the PPP project financial instruments that commonly used will also be clearly analyzed. Based on the in-depth knowledge of the PPP model, the paper will depend on the development situation of the PPP model in some countries, especially China, to provide visual examples of each financial instrument.

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