An Analysis of Yield Gap and Some Factors of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Yields in Ghana

  •  Aneani F.    
  •  Ofori-Frimpong K.    


Although cocoa productivity has recently been increasing in Ghana, it is still low compared with that of other countries such as Cote d’Ivoire and Malaysia. This situation has been attributed to the low adoption of cocoa production technologies. The study was aimed at analysing the yield gap as well as some cocoa yield factors. Cross-sectional socio-economic survey was conducted in six (6) cocoa growing districts: Nkawie, Goaso, Enchi, Oda, Twifo Praso/Assin Fosu and Hohoe. A structured questionnaire was employed in the collection of data from 300 respondents who were randomly chosen with multi-stage cluster sampling technique. The yield gaps and their proportion to yield potentials were estimated using data from the survey and on-station trials. The findings indicated an experimental yield gap of 1 553.4 kg ha-1, accounting for 82.1% of the experimental yield potential whereas farmer-based yield gap was 1 537.2 kg ha-1, also accounting for 82.0% of the farmer (survey) yield potential. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression analysis indicated that frequency of spraying fungicides against black pod disease, spraying insecticides against capsids, weeding of cocoa farms, cocoa variety planted by farmer, area of cocoa farm and total cocoa production variables had a significant impact on cocoa yield. It is recommended that the Government should encourage cocoa farmers, through pragmatic measures, to adopt improved technologies for enhancing productivity instead of focusing on excessive land expansion which eventually leads to low productivity.

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