Comparison of Clinical and Radiographic Periodontal Status between Hookah and Cigarette Smokers
- Seyed Ali Banihashem Rad
- Mohammad Bagheri Iraj
- Majid Sanat Khani
- Zahra Saeedi
- Seyed Ahmad Banihashem Rad
- Hadi Yasamani
- Amir Movahhedian
Background and Objective: Inhalation of chemicals and toxins in cigarette and hookah smoke results in loss of integrity of oral cavity tissues. The objective of this study was to compare the periodontal health of hookah and cigarette smokers.
Materials and Methods: In this study, 73 men at the age group of 20-35 years who smoked hookah for more than 5 years and 73 men at the same age who smoked cigarette for more than 5 years and 73 healthy men referred to the periodontal department of Mashhad dentistry school were selected and studied. Periodontal indices including pocket depth, GI, BOP, CAL were assessed in two groups. Also, using parallel periapical radiography, mesial and distal marginal bone level around the first molar tooth was measured. Finally, the data were assessed and compared using appropriate statistical analysis.
Results: Pocket depth was 24.27% and 23.62%, respectively, in cigarette smokers and hookah smokers, and it was 0.96% in healthy subjects, clinical attachment level was 4.48 and 4.41 mm, respectively, in cigarette smokers and hookah smokers, and it was 0.77 mm in healthy subjects. Gingival index (GI) was 1.40 and 1.42, respectively, in cigarette smokers and hookah smokers and it was 0.52 in healthy subjects, BOP value was 6.52 and 6.52%, respectively, in cigarette smokers and hookah smokers and it was 10.86% in healthy subjects. Mesial marginal bone level of first lower molar tooth was 2.27 and 2.32 mm, respectively, in cigarette smokers and hookah smokers and it was 1.74 mm in healthy subjects and distal marginal bone level of lower first molar tooth was 2.38 and 2.35 mm, respectively, in cigarette smokers and hookah smokers and it was 1.75 mm in healthy subjects. Comparison of results between the two groups of cigarette smokers and hookah smokers did not show any significant relationship in any of the variables, but there was a significant relationship between the two groups and the healthy group (P <0.001).
Conclusion: Periodontal parameters in healthy individuals are significantly better than those of smokers. Also, although there is a relationship between cigarette smoking and hookah smoking and periodontal parameters, these two groups do not show a significant difference in terms of periodontal parameters.
- Grace BrownEditorial Assistant