The Prevalence, Predictors, Causes, Treatment, and Implications of Procrastination Behaviors in General, Academic, and Work Setting

  •  Irum Saeed Abbasi    
  •  Nawal G. Alghamdi    


Procrastination refers to a prevalent self-regulatory failure that alludes to deferring necessary actions required to successfully complete tasks on time, and instead engaging in activities that are more rewarding with short term over long term gains (Aremu, Williams, & Adesina, 2011). Procrastination is identified as one of the least understood minor human miseries and a complex psychological phenomenon that not only leads to psychological distress, but also shows significant links to lower levels of health, wealth, and well-being (Balkis & Duru, 2007; Steel & Ferrari, 2013). Approximately, 20-25% of adult men and women living around the world are indulged in chronic procrastination in various domains like academic, social relationships, professional, and finance management (Balkis & Duru, 2007; Ferrari & Díaz-Morales, 2014). Some of the identified factors closely associated with procrastination include evaluation anxiety, task aversiveness, task delay, low self-efficacy, lack of persistence, dependence, fear of failure, negative evaluation, irrational beliefs, learned helplessness, and perfectionism (Schubert & Stewart, 2000; Steel, 2007; Steel & Ferrari, 2013). Procrastination tendencies also give rise to poor self-esteem, poor self-confidence, anxiety, public and private self-consciousness, and concerns over public image (Ferrari, 2001). The prevalence, predictors, causes, treatments, and implications of procrastination behavioral patterns in general, academic, and work settings are reviewed.

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