Comparison of Mental Structures of Eighth-graders in Different Countries on the Basis of Fennema-Sherman Test

  •  Jari Metsämuuronen    


The intended factor structure of attitude scales in TIMSS 2007 dataset (N > 240, 000) is totally unstructured in several countries. There are two inseparable phenomena which explain the differences between countries. First, the ability level of the students is strictly connected with the level of maturation in thinking. Second, there are differences between countries which cannot be explained by the differences in achievement level. Four distinguishmental structures are identified: “Western” structure, “African–Asian” structure, “Middle Eastern–Asian” structure, and “high-performing East Asian” structure.

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