Cultural Differences in the Levels of Rewards between Adolescents from America, Australia, Tanzania, Denmark, Honduras, Korea, and Spain

  •  Kendra Homan    
  •  Daniel Houlihan    
  •  Kari Ek    
  •  Joseph Wanzek    


The intent of this study is to determine what items are reinforcing for high school students from different regions
of the world including America, Australia, Tanzania, Denmark, Honduras, Korea, and Spain. Additionally, the
researchers sought to determine if there is a difference in the levels of rewards between individuals from
America and individuals from these other countries.
Seven hundred and fifty high school students from seven countries participated in this study. The only
requirement for inclusion in the study was current enrollment in high school in their native country. Subject ages
ranged from 12 to 19 years, with a mean of 15.52 years. Students were administered a 63-item survey of reward
preference called the SORT-2. The SORT-2 is in English (SORT-2-EV), Spanish (SORT-2-SV), and Korean
(SORT-2-KV) versions.
Multiple between-subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on data reflecting the effects of region.
The ANOVA was significant for region in 24 of the 25 items in the sports domain, 22 of the 30 items in the
activity domain, and in all of the eight items in the school activity domain. The bivariate analysis indicated that
participants from America were most different from those in Honduras, Tanzania, and Spain. The least amount of
difference was noted in comparisons with Australia and Denmark.

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