Chronic Kidney Disease: Clinical and Epidemiological Scenario of Patients in Hemodialysis
- Liliane Bernardes Campos
- Mônica Cristina Toffoli-Kadri
- Vanessa Terezinha Gubert
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and epidemiological scenario of patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis.
METHOD: Retrospective study with secondary data collected from the medical records of patients over 18 years of age on hemodialysis from January 2016 to December 2018.
RESULTS: 507 patients underwent ambulatory and/or hospital hemodialysis during the study period. From these, 494 participants were included, comprising 383 who were still under treatment at the end of the study period and 111 who died during the study period. The majority of hemodialysis patients were male, with a mean age of 56.6 years, non-white (77.4%), in a stable relationship (51.6%), retired (54.9%), and with low education (73.9%). Most participants started hemodialysis with the use of a central venous catheter (83.3%), which was maintained for 43.8% of the treatment time. Participants used an average of 18.91 medications daily. More than half of the deaths occurred during the first two years of treatment, with 30.6% of these occurring in the first 12 months of hemodialysis. Evaluation of the results of the clinical outcome of death demonstrated a relationship between age (p= 0.003), number of comorbidities (p = 0.009), time using a central venous catheter (p = 0.025), and white ethnicity (p = 0.021). Septic shock was the main cause of death (56.8%).
CONCLUSION: Some factors related to the prognosis of the disease cannot be changed, such as age and white ethnicity. However, greater attention to the management and adequate monitoring of comorbidities is necessary, as well as a reduction in the time spent using a central venous catheter. Due to polymedication, pharmacotherapeutic monitoring is indicated, both for the prevention of drug related problems and for discussions concerning drug discontinuation.
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