Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in Agriculture: Cases from Southeast Asia

Rajendra Prasad Shrestha, Nani Raut, Lwin Maung Maung Swe, Thida Tieng

Abstract


Climate change has become apparent and been threatening more and more in Southeast Asia. Its impacts on agriculture and adaptation strategies at household level in farming systems areas are explored. The study focused on better understanding of climate change impacts and adaptation practices in four villages of Myanmar and Cambodia. Household questionnaire survey, focus group discussions and key informant interviews were used for data collection at household and community level supplemented with secondary data. Dry Zone farmers of Myanmar reported increase in crop diversity while in the Kampong Speu province in Cambodia, the number of rice growing farmers increased together with cultivation of other crops, such as cassava, palm fruit, sugarcane, mangoes, watermelons and vegetables. Farmers changed their cultivation practices as adaptation strategies in various ways: change in cropping calendar, crop varieties, machinery for cultivation practice, and change in area for cultivation. The shift in cropping calendar has occurred from two weeks to one month. Diverse strategies were reported in adapting to water scarcity in agriculture, such as system of rice intensification and water pumping. Farmers also adopted strategies for coping with declining soil productivity. These include animal manure application, compost making and application, crop rotation and crop residues retention. In particular, Dry Zone farmers prefer to apply animal manure rather than other practices because of its vast benefits, such as buffering capacity, effectiveness for plant growth and cheaper price. Cooperative actions are becoming increasingly needed when an individual could not afford adaptation strategies. However, barriers to adaptation strategies are to be reduced to promote climate adaptive practices in agriculture.


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/sar.v7n3p39

Copyright (c) 2018 Rajendra Prasad Shrestha, Nani Raut, Lwin Maung Maung Swe, Thida Tieng

License URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

Sustainable Agriculture Research   ISSN 1927-050X (Print)   ISSN 1927-0518 (Online)  E-mail: sar@ccsenet.org

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