A Brief History of Endophyte Detection Techniques in Grasses


  •  Rana Zaheer Ahmad    
  •  Fuad Ameen    
  •  Rida Khalid    
  •  Mousa A. Alghuthaymi    
  •  Reem Alsalmi    
  •  Chunjie Li    

Abstract

Endophytes are the plant mutualists that live asymptomatically inside plant tissue and are found in nearly whole plant kingdom. Endophytic fungi receive shelter and nutrition from host plants and in return provide great advantages to the host. Grasses are a useful forage species and are of great agricultural and socio-economic value. The presence of endophytes in these grasses provide protection, persistence and improved yield against herbivores, insects, pathogens, drought and several other biotic and abiotic stresses. This review summarizes traditional and modern molecular techniques to identify endophytes from turf and forage grasses. Traditional approaches include direct observation, staining, laser micro dissection and pressure catapulting and cultivation-dependent methods that provide a morphological identification of endophytic mycobiota in grass tissues. Earlier studies on endophytes using these methods resulted in several technical implications which molecular approaches are able to solve now-a-days. Molecular approaches include DNA extraction, PCR based DNA Fingerprinting techniques, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, Sanger sequencing, Pyrosequencing, Immunoblot assay, Biosensors, DNA Barcoding and Molecular Phylogenetics etc. A comparison of these detection techniques will facilitate other researchers as well to develop new ways for the detection of endophytes that will contribute to the improvement of grassland in future.



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • Issn(Print): 1927-050X
  • Issn(Onlne): 1927-0518
  • Started: 2012
  • Frequency: quarterly

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