Spatial, Temporal and Structural Usages of Pashto Case Marker ‘Ta’


  •  Raj Wali Khan    
  •  Muhammad Iqbal    
  •  Muhammad Anwar    

Abstract

Pashto is an Indo-Iranian language which expresses different semantic aspects and functions with the help of case markers. The post-position & case marker Ta has the quality to posit many types of usages i.e. temporal, spatial and structural in Pashto language. In the research on Pashto syntax, Khan (2009), Roberts (2000) and Tegey and Robson (1996) have described the phenomenon of case marker ‘Ta’ but have not been investigated extensively. This study follows Ahmed (2006) to analyze in detail different functions and usages of Ta in terms of semantic and syntactic principles and provides a unified account for these diverse usages and their meanings. The analyses confirm that Ta as a case marker is not only used for Dative case as a subject but it has a polysemous nature in terms of spatial and non-spatial (structural, temporal) usages. The non-spatial usages are the extension of its spatial origin in the semantic field that is metaphorically spatial by default. Besides temporal and structural ­Ta usages can be extended to purpose, reason, obligations, immediate future, perception, ability and inability in relations to DAT (as a SUBJ or OBJ) in Pashto language.


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