An Improved Comparison of Chemometric Analyses for the Identification of Acids and Bases With Colorimetric Sensor Arrays


  •  Michael Kangas    
  •  Christina Wilson    
  •  Raychelle Burks    
  •  Jordyn Atwater    
  •  Rachel Lukowicz    
  •  Billy Garver    
  •  Miles Mayer    
  •  Shana Havenridge    
  •  Andrea Holmes    

Abstract

Colorimetric sensor arrays incorporating red, green, and blue (RGB) image analysis use value changes from multiple sensors for the identification and quantification of various analytes. RGB data can be easily obtained using image analysis software such as ImageJ. Subsequent chemometric analysis is becoming a key component of colorimetric array RGB data analysis, though literature contains mainly principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Seeking to expand the chemometric methods toolkit for array analysis, we explored the performance of nine chemometric methods were compared for the task of classifying 631 solutions (0.1 to 3 M) of acetic acid, malonic acid, lysine, and ammonia using an eight sensor colorimetric array. PCA and LDA (linear discriminant analysis) were effective for visualizing the dataset. For classification, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), (k nearest neighbors) KNN, (soft independent modelling by class analogy) SIMCA, recursive partitioning and regression trees (RPART), and hit quality index (HQI) were very effective with each method classifying compounds with over 90% correct assignments. Support vector machines (SVM) and partial least squares – discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) struggled with ~85 and 39% correct assignments, respectively. Additional mathematical treatments of the data set, such as incrementally increasing the exponents, did not improve the performance of LDA and KNN. The literature precedence indicates that the most common methods for analyzing colorimetric arrays are PCA, LDA, HCA, and KNN. To our knowledge, this is the first report of comparing and contrasting several more diverse chemometric methods to analyze the same colorimetric array data.



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • Issn(Print): 1916-9698
  • Issn(Onlne): 1916-9701
  • Started: 2009
  • Frequency: semiannual

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