Optimisation of Organic Solvent Mediated Solubilisation of Apple Pomace Polyphenolic Compounds Using Response Surface Methodologies
- Salis Ibrahim
- Regina Santos
- Steve Bowra
Polyphenolic compounds extraction from industrial apple pomace was optimised by applying design of experiments (DoE) and surface response methodology using the Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). The degree solubilisation and the yield of total phenolic content from the apple pomace using organic solvents was shown to be influenced by process parameters including solvent type, solvent concentration, temperature, apple pomace to solvent ratio, and extraction time (residency time). Optimal conditions of extracting phenolic compounds were as follows: acetone concentration, 65 % (v/v); solid to solvent ratio 1 %; extraction time 30 minutes and temperature 60oC. Optimum condition for solubilisation was as follows: acetone concentration 78 % (v/v); solid to solvent ratio 4.7 %; extraction time 54 minutes and temperature 21oC. Under these conditions, the total phenolic content and solubilisation were 21.70 ± 0.2 mg GAE/g dw and 19.20 ± 0.1g/100g of the dried apple pomace respectively and largely agreed with those predicted by the Stat-Ease software. Independent variables for optimisation of total phenolic content and solubilisation were completely different. The reverse phase HPLC analysis of the extract revealed the major polyphenolic compounds were chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B2, caffeic acid, epicatechin, ferulic acid, quercetin-3-galactoside, quercetin-3-glucoside and phloridzin.
- Albert JohnEditorial Assistant