Artificial Cultivation System for Gastrodia spp. and Identification of Associated Mycorrhizal Fungi

Chie Shimaoka, Hirokazu Fukunaga, Seishu Inagaki, Shinichiro Sawa


The Orchidaceae are the largest and most diverse family of flowering plants on earth, and include some of the most important horticultural plants. While mycoheterotrophic orchids belonging to the genus Gastrodia are known to be provided with carbon through mycorrhizal fungi, the relationship between the plants and fungi is poorly understood. Furthermore, it is challenging to cultivate Gastrodia spp. in vitro. In this study, we present an efficient method for germinating Gastrodia pubilabiata (Gp), Gastrodia nipponica (Gn), and Gastrodia confusa (Gc) plants in vitro, which results in the production of a protocorm and tuber, as under natural conditions. The Gp and Gc plants produced flowers 126 and 124 days after germination, respectively, and set seed under our artificial conditions. In addition, Gp plants flowered up to three times a year from a single tuber. Using our artificial cultivation system, we identified some of the mycorrhizal fungi associated with these plants. Gastrodia spp. appear to obtain carbon from many kinds of mycorrhizal fungi. Our artificial cultivation method is a rapid and efficient means of growing Gastrodia spp. In addition to having applications in research and commercial nurseries, this method could be used to conserve Gastrodia spp. in ex situ, many of which are endangered.

Full Text:



Copyright (c) 2017 Chie Shimaoka, Hirokazu Fukunaga, Seishu Inagaki, Shinichiro Sawa

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Biology   ISSN 1916-9671(Print)   ISSN 1916-968X  (Online)   Email:

Copyright © Canadian Center of Science and Education

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.


scholar_logo_lg_2011_120 proquest_logo_120 lockss_logo_2_120