Polymorphism and Damage of Aphids (Homoptera: Aphidoidea)

Alla Vereschagina, Elena Gandrabur

Abstract


The paper presents an analysis of original and published data on the ways of interaction of aphids with their host plants, the abiotic environment, other aphids and various other organisms, in relation to the specific traits of their biology, epigenesis, and migrations. Special attention is paid to the factors determining the colonial mode of life and the factors controlling the formation of alate morphs during the vegetation period. It is shown that damage of aphids is determined by their mode of feeding on plant sap, gregariousness, short- and long-range dispersal, and intraspecific variation. The factors controlling polymorphism in aphids are classified for the first time and a diagram showing their action is proposed. The importance of alate morph development in aphids as a factor and an indicator of their damage is demonstrated.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ijb.v6n4p124

International Journal of Biology   ISSN 1916-9671(Print)   ISSN 1916-968X  (Online)

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