Assessment of Physico-chemical Quality of Groundwater Sources in Ga East Municipality of Ghana

Richard Amfo Otu, Stephen Omari, Emmanuel Boakye Dede


Safe drinking water is essential to the protection of public health and well being of citizenry. The study investigated physico-chemical water quality parameters that could contribute to consumers’ complain from communities benefiting from small town water supply schemes in Ga East Municipality of Ghana. Three samples were collected from each borehole, duplicate physico-chemical analysis was conducted and the result was compared to World Health Organisation guidelines for drinking water. The parameters analysed were based on their ability to impart colour to groundwater, change taste and form scales on storage and pipe fittings. The result showed that, the pH (5.2±0.5, 5.3±0.4 and 5.1±0.2) of the three boreholes were below WHO recommended levels which made the water acidic and aggressive. The study reviewed that the borehole water were moderately hard (66.0±3.6, 91.3±5.1 and 73.7±3.5 mg CaCO3/L). These two parameters can cause rusting and scale formation in pipe fittings which could lead to consumer complains. Other parameters such as (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, and SO42- mg/l) were within acceptable limits. Colour imparting ions like iron (0.1±0.0, 0.1±0.0 and 0.1±0.0 mg/l) and manganese (0.02-0.03 mg/l) were within WHO guidelines, were considered safe and had no major health implications on consumers. It was therefore recommended that liming should be considered to bring the pH level to an acceptable limit.

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