Pragmatics Encoded and Decoded Message

Valentina A. Gara, Edona H. Berisha, Bashkim B. Gllareva


People’s utterances while interacting have different meanings according to the circumstances and the intentions that speakers try to convey to a listener, while the listener may misunderstand and even get insulted because of the lack of information regarding the subject. It is a field studied by Pragmatics but the main study of this paper is discussing the indispensible effort that should be made by speakers when conveying an idea by adding more details possible in order to prevent insulting. The paper deals with all features of Pragmatics including speech acts, reference and inference, presupposition and entailment, cooperation and implication, also discourse and culture. Various samples are given on each feature in the most appropriate way possible to present the cause of insults that may occur when people are interacting.

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English Language and Literature Studies   ISSN 1925-4768 (Print)   ISSN 1925-4776 (Online)   E-mail:

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