Muslim Pilgrims' Use of Electronic Billboards (EBBs) and Message Recall: Examining the Effectiveness of the EBBs as a PSA Tool

Osman Gazzaz, Fazal Khan, Zafar Iqbal

Abstract


The present study has examined the utility of the electronic billboards (EBBs) as a public service announcement (PSA) tool in the Holy Mosque area, Makkah Al-Mukarramah. Data were gathered from a non-probability sample of the Omrah pilgrims on the use, perceptions, and recall of the EBB messages. In-depth interviews with informants were also used to help interpret the data. Pilgrims’ attention to the billboards and their recall of the messages were used as factors of billboard utility and effectiveness. On the basis of frequency distribution analysis coupled with simple elaboration through contingency and partial contingency tables, and zero-order and 5th order partial correlations, the study concludes that despite their potential for high effectiveness the EBBs are not producing much of an impact on the pilgrims. Recommendations are proffered on how best to improve the EBBs utility as a PSA tool for the pilgrims.

Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.5539/ass.v10n7p48

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Asian Social Science   ISSN 1911-2017 (Print)   ISSN 1911-2025 (Online)

Copyright © Canadian Center of Science and Education 

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'ccsenet.org' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.