Muslim Pilgrims' Use of Electronic Billboards (EBBs) and Message Recall: Examining the Effectiveness of the EBBs as a PSA Tool

Osman Gazzaz, Fazal Khan, Zafar Iqbal


The present study has examined the utility of the electronic billboards (EBBs) as a public service announcement (PSA) tool in the Holy Mosque area, Makkah Al-Mukarramah. Data were gathered from a non-probability sample of the Omrah pilgrims on the use, perceptions, and recall of the EBB messages. In-depth interviews with informants were also used to help interpret the data. Pilgrims’ attention to the billboards and their recall of the messages were used as factors of billboard utility and effectiveness. On the basis of frequency distribution analysis coupled with simple elaboration through contingency and partial contingency tables, and zero-order and 5th order partial correlations, the study concludes that despite their potential for high effectiveness the EBBs are not producing much of an impact on the pilgrims. Recommendations are proffered on how best to improve the EBBs utility as a PSA tool for the pilgrims.

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Asian Social Science   ISSN 1911-2017 (Print)   ISSN 1911-2025 (Online)

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