Attributions to Success and Failure in English Language Learning: A Comparative Study of Urban and Rural Undergraduates in Malaysia

Peter Gobel, Siew Ming Thang, Gurnam Kaur Sidhu, Sok Imm Oon, Yuen Fook Chan


This paper presents a descriptive study of Malaysian urban and rural students’ attributions for success and failure in learning English as a second language. Data was collected using the Attribution to Success and Failure Questionnaires (ASQ & AFQ), based on previous research conducted by Vispoel and Austin (1995). The findings indicated that urban and rural students held different attribution ratings for the success and failure for learning English as a second language with the urban group being more willing to attribute success to their own ability, effort, and study skills than the rural group. Based on this data, we can hypothesize that the urban group are much more study-wise and confident as they have a greater belief in their own ability to take control of their successes in the language classroom.

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Asian Social Science   ISSN 1911-2017 (Print)   ISSN 1911-2025 (Online)    Email: 

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