The Response of Stream Competence to Topographic and Seasonal Variations in The Bamenda-Menchum Drainage Basin, North West Region, Cameroon


  •  Kang Edwin Mua    
  •  Kometa Sunday Shende    

Abstract

The flow direction of streams remains an establishing mechanism in understanding drainage basin function and stream competence. The ability of streams to erode, transport and deposit loads in fluvial geomorphology exert a benchmark precursor for slope dynamics given the differential geological outcrop of the Bamenda-Menchum basin. Such competence in stream network generates slope instability as materials continuously move down slope from the volcanic escarpment face of Bamenda highlands to the sedimentary lowland area of Lower Bafut-Menchum basin. This paper investigate the influence of stream flow direction and stream competence on slope dynamics and how such dynamism affects the development prospects of the drainage basin. Slope range was obtained from AVL/EBI.JHO measurement. Stream length, density and flow direction were gotten from GIS Arc 21. Stream depth, channel width, flow rate and sedimentation levels were measured. Gully depth on slopes and landslide angles were measured using 30m tape and a graduated pole. Questionnaires were used to collect information on the vulnerability of households to slope dynamics orchestrated by stream competence. Findings revealed that stream competence varies from the two geological basements and that the escarpment face respond to high flow gravity and hydraulic action contributing to rapid erosion and transportation of loads. The results equally showed that the Bamenda escarpment face that is linked to the crystalline rocks produce differential erosion and landslide. 76.7% of slope instability is explained by geological structure and seasonality effect in the basin while 23.3% of slope dynamics is explained by other variables not specified in the study. The lower basin remains liable to deposition of materials on river channels and flood plain. The accumulation of sand, stones and alluvial deposits are extracted and exploited for the development prospects of the basin. The study recommends channel and slope management by integrating slope development control policy in drainage basin management and development.



This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • ISSN(Print): 1916-9779
  • ISSN(Online): 1916-9787
  • Started: 2009
  • Frequency: quarterly

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