Evaluation of Growth and Yield of Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L.) in Response to Biological and Chemical Fertilizers

  •  Reza Hajagha    
  •  Saliha Kirici    
  •  Leila Tabrizi    
  •  Ahmad Asgharzadeh    
  •  Aydin Hamidi    


In order to study the effects of biological and chemical fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative yields of purple coneflower, an experiment was carried out during 2010-2012. The morphological traits such as plant height, number of lateral shoots, shoot fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight, number of inflorescences per plant, number of flower buds per plant, and essential oil content and yield were measured. The results showed significant effects of the treatments on the growth parameters. In the second year, the mixture of the three bacteria plus mycorrhizal inoculum improved important parameters such as shoot dry weight (40.42%), root dry weight (60.02%), and number of inflorescences per plant (65.68%). Interestingly, these values were not significantly different from obtained results by the chemical fertilizers. Additionally, the essential oil content in plants treated with the mixture of the three bacteria were 152.14% and 25.11% higher than the control plants in the first and the second year, respectively. The essential oil yield in plants treated with the mixture of the three bacteria was higher than those treated with the chemical fertilizers in two years. The results indicate that using biological fertilizers is a good choice to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers as an important tool to contribute to a sustainable agriculture.

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