Characterization of Oil Yield and Quality in Shatter-Resistant Dwarf Sesame Produced in Virginia, USA

Harbans L. Bhardwaj, Anwar A. Hamama, Mark E. Kraemer, D. Ray Langham

Abstract


Sesame has potential as an alternative crop for former tobacco farmers in eastern USA to increase agricultural diversification and enhance farm incomes. Oil yield and quality of five shatter-resistant and dwarf sesame cultivars when grown using rows 37.5 cm or 75 cm apart were evaluated. Sesame was planted on 23 May and 8 Jun. (PT1) during 2011 and on 17 and 9 Jul. (PT2) during 2012. Early planting (Late May to early June) resulted in 716.6 kg oil/ha as compared to 479.6 kg oil/ha from late planting (early June to mid-July). The closer row spacing of 37.5 cm out-yielded the wider row spacing of 75 cm by about 34% for oil yield. Early planting increased the contents of C16:0, C20:0, C18:1, and C20:1 fatty acids whereas late planting increased the contents of C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids. Contents of total saturated fatty acids and mono-unsaturated fatty acids were also greater after early planting as compared to those after late plantings. Closer row spacing of 37.5 cm resulted in significantly higher contents of C20:1 and saturated fatty acids in the oil as compared to the wider row spacing of 75 cm. Sesame seed produced in Virginia contained 6.8% more oil than that produced in Texas (45. 5 vs. 42.6%, respectively). The results indicated that sesame could be produced in the mid-Atlantic region of USA.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/jas.v7n4p87

Journal of Agricultural Science ISSN 1916-9752 (Print) ISSN 1916-9760 (Online)

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