Inflammation Mediators Related to Periodontal Disease and Pregnancy Outcomes: A Call for Quality of Antenatal Care While Promising Evidences Are Emerging

  •  Juliana Faquim    
  •  Ana Paula Oliveira    
  •  Marcelo Silva    
  •  Paulo Frazão    


Infections may play a significant role in the induction of births and prematurity. Periodontal disease could be a risk factor for pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth, and low birth weight. Possible mechanisms of this relationship are the production of inflammatory mediators and cytokines like C-reactive protein (CRP), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), matrix metalloproteinases, interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF-a); the translocation of periodontal pathogens to the feto-placental unit through blood stream, a periodontal reservoir of lipopolysaccharides (LPS); and shared risk factors. Although this knowledge is just emerging, it has important implications for the health services and the healthcare delivery model. Committed health teams to an interprofessional collaborative work within the health services can raise the quality of antenatal care. Population strategies directed to prevent and control periodontal disease can increase the periodontal health of the majority of people and affect positively risk groups. These inexpensive basic measures joined with other actions at different levels could enhance the quality of antenatal care and contribute for favorable pregnancy outcomes. Further researches need to clarify the evidences on those relationships.     

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