Acute Kidney Injury Recognition and Management: A Review of the Literature and Current Evidence

Syed Raza Shah, Sameer Altaf Tunio, Mohammad Hussham Arshad, Zorays Moazzam, Komal Noorani, Anushe Mohsin Feroze, Maham Shafquat, Huma Syed Hussain, Syed Ali Hyder Jeoffrey

Abstract


Acute renal failure is defined as a rapid decrease in the glomerular filtration rate, occurring over a period of hours to days and by the inability of the kidney to regulate fluid and electrolyte homeostasis appropriately. AKI is a catastrophic, life-threatening event in critically ill patients. AKI can be divided into pre-renal injury, intrinsic kidney disease (including vascular insults) and obstructive uropathies. The prognosis of AKI is highly dependent on the underlying cause of the injury. Children who have AKI as a component of multisystem failure have a much higher mortality rate than children with intrinsic renal disease. Treatment of AKI is subjected to risk stratification and ongoing damage control measures, such as patients with sepsis, exposure to nephrotoxic agents, ischemia, bloody diarrhea, or volume loss, could be helped by optimizing the fluid administrations, antibiotics possessing least nephrotoxic potential, blood transfusion where hemoglobin is dangerously low, limiting the use of nephrotoxic agents including radio contrast use, while maximize the nutrition. Acute kidney injury remains a complex disorder with an apparent differentiation in pathology between septic and nonseptic forms of the disease. Although more studies are still required, progress in this area has been steady over the last decade with purposeful international collaboration.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v8n5p120

Global Journal of Health Science   ISSN 1916-9736(Print)   ISSN 1916-9744(Online)

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