Evaluation of Some Heavy Metals in Imported Chocolate and Candies Sold in Nigeria

J. O. Ochu, A. Uzairu, J. A. Kagbu, C. E. Gimba, O. J. Okunola


This study was initiated as a follow-up information on some impounded products chocolates and candies (Samples A, B, C and D) imported from overseas, and sold in Nigeria markets. This result as their failure to meets Nation Agency for food drug administration and control (NAFDAC) regulatory standard. Samples of these products were collected in five markets of each six states each from the six geographical zones: North-West (Bauchi), North-East (Kano), North-Central (Kogi), South-West (Lagos), South-East (Abia), and South-South (Rivers) of the country. In order to evaluate the quality of the products, the levels of some heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Ti and Cr) were evaluated in the samples using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Concentrations of metals in both chocolates and candies ranged 3.0 – 4.2 mg/g for Cu, 40.0 – 55.7 mg/g for Mn, ND – 102.5 mg/g for Fe, ND – 305.0 mg/g for Ni, ND – 42.5 mg/g for Zn, ND – 23.8 mg/g for Ti, and ND – 10.8 mg/g for Cr. The results showed that that these metals are at higher levels in Samples A, B, C and D compared to other studies in candies and chocolates in Nigeria. Correlation analysis among metals revealed positive correlations, which indicates similar sources of these metals. Also, evaluation of dietary intake of these products daily revealed that Samples A (except for Cu), B and C are above the daily dietary recommended limit for all the studied metals in food. Thus a frequent intake of these contaminated products is likely to induce health effects arising largely from Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn.

Full Text:


DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/jfr.v1n3p169


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)

Journal of Food Research   ISSN 1927-0887 (Print)   ISSN 1927-0895 (Online)  E-mail: jfr@ccsenet.org

Copyright © Canadian Center of Science and Education

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'ccsenet.org' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.