HRM Practices in Public and Private Universities of Pakistan: A Comparative Study

Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Irfan Arif, Furrakh Abbas


The purpose of this study was to compare the HRM practices of public and private universities in Punjab province of Pakistan. The data for the study was collected through a questionnaire comprising 30 items mainly related to job definition, training and development, compensation, team work, employee’s participation and performance appraisal. The instrument was validated through pilot testing. The internal reliability of the instrument was found to be 0.85. The sample was comprised of 60 executives (directors/heads of departments) selected randomly from six universities. The collected data was analyzed by applying descriptive and inferential statistical techniques such as means and independent sample t-test. The results showed that there was a significant difference in HRM practices according to executives of public and private universities. HRM practices in the areas of job definition, training and development, compensation, team work and employees participation were better in the public universities than private universities. However, performance appraisal practices were found better in the private universities than public sector universities. At the end recommendations were made for the HRM executives of private and public universities to improve their HRM practices in favor of their employees.

Full Text:



Copyright (c) 2011 Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Irfan Arif, Furrakh Abbas

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

International Education Studies ISSN 1913-9020 (Print), ISSN 1913-9039 (Online)


Copyright © Canadian Center of Science and Education

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.