Depressive Symptoms and Bone Mineral Density among Police Officers in a Northeastern US City

Luenda E. Charles, Desta Fekedulegn, Diane B. Miller, Jean Wactawski-Wende, John M. Violanti, Michael E. Andrew, Cecil M. Burchfiel

Abstract


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. BMD of total hip, femoral neck, anterio-posterior (AP) spine, wrist, and total body were measured by DXA using standardized procedures. Mean levels of BMD across gender-specific tertiles of CES-D score were obtained using ANOVA and ANCOVA. Results: Participants included 97 police officers (41 women; 29-64 years). Depressive symptoms were not associated with BMD at any site among men. However among women, mean BMD values decreased across increasing (worsening) tertiles of CES-D for the AP spine (low CES-D=1.22 ± 0.04; medium CES-D=1.05±0.04; high CES-D=1.03±0.04 g/cm2; p=0.035) and for the whole body (low=1.26±0.03; medium=1.20±0.03; high=1.11±0.03 g/cm2; p=0.018) after adjustment. Conclusions: Higher depressive symptoms were associated with lower BMD among female but not male officers.


Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v4n3p39

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Global Journal of Health Science   ISSN 1916-9736(Print)   ISSN 1916-9744(Online)

Copyright © Canadian Center of Science and Education

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'ccsenet.org' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.