Studies on Pollution Hazards of Shallow Hand-Dug Wells in Erena and Environs, North-Central Nigeria

Amadi A. N., Dan-Hassan M. A., Okoye N. O., Ejiofor I. C., Aminu Tukur

Abstract


This present study evaluates the pollution status of shallow hand-dug wells in Erena community, Shiroro Local Government Area of Niger State, North-central Nigeria using pollution index. The application of pollution index on the hydrochemical data revealed that the groundwater from the shallow aquifers in Erena area had serious bacteriological pollution and moderately/slightly pollution coming from pH, iron and bicarbonate, while the pollution status of the remaining parameters are within the acceptable limit for a potable water. The observed microbial pollution arising from the presence of total coliform and E. coli in the well water are due to migration of plume from un-lined pit-latrines/soakaway while the enrichment of the well water with low pH, high iron and bicarbonate can be attributed to natural sources arising from bedrock dissolution. Results of well water samples collected far away from the pit-latrines/soakaway show no microbial contaminant. The dominant hydrochemical facies as revealed by Piper diagram are Ca-Mg/CO3-HCO3. Boiling of the water before drinking is recommended as most bacteria do not withstand very high temperature. Future hand-dug wells and boreholes in the area should be sited far away from the existing pit-latrines/soakaway and groundwater should be tapped from deeper aquifers. The use of sanitary VIP-latrines and well-lined soakaway system were proposed. Niger State Ministries of Environment and Water Resources should organize workshops and seminars in the area as means of creating the needed awareness on the benefits of good hygiene and clean environment to man.

Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.5539/enrr.v3n2p69

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Environment and Natural Resources Research   ISSN 1927-0488 (Print)   ISSN 1927-0496 (Online)

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