Applied Physics Research
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<img style="float: right; padding-left: 20px; padding-right: 20px;" src="/journal/public/site/images/blj/APR-cover.jpg" alt="" width="300" height="405" /><br /><p><em>Applied Physics Research</em> is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal published by the Canadian Center of Science and Education. The journal focuses on the following topics: acoustics, astrophysics and geophysics, biophysics, computational physics, condensed matter physics, engineering physics, free electron physics, laser and quantum electronics, medical physics, optics, semiconductor physics and devices, solid state physics, space physics.</p><p>The journal provides an academic platform for professionals and researchers to contribute innovative work in the field. The journal carries original and full-length articles that reflect the latest research and developments in both theoretical and practical aspects of applied physics.</p><p>The journal is published in both print and online versions <strong>bimonthly (February, April, June, August, October, December)</strong>. The online version is free access and download. If you want to order print copies, please visit: <a href="/web/store.html">www.ccsenet.org/store</a></p><p>--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------</p><p><strong>Issues</strong></p><strong> </strong><ul><li><a href="/journal/index.php/apr/issue/current"><strong>Open Issue (e-Version First<sup>TM</sup> )</strong></a><strong> </strong></li><li><strong><a href="/journal/index.php/apr/issue/archive">All Issues</a></strong></li></ul><p>------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------</p><p>The journal accepts <a href="/journal/index.php/apr/login/signIn"><strong>Online submission</strong></a> and <a href="mailto:apr@ccsenet.org"><strong>Email submission</strong></a>. Manuscripts (MS office word format) and supplementary materials can be submitted via the journal’s Online Management System or email to <a href="mailto:apr@ccsenet.org"><strong>apr@ccsenet.org</strong></a>.</p> <p>If you have any questions, please contact the editorial assistant at <a href="mailto:apr@ccsenet.org"><strong>apr@ccsenet.org</strong></a>.</p><p>------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------</p><p><strong>Index/List/Archive</strong></p><ul><li><strong><a href="http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/2280457">Bibliography and Index of Geology</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.crossref.org/">CrossRef</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.ebscohost.com/">EBSCOhost</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://scholar.google.com/">Google Scholar</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.lockss.org/">LOCKSS</a></strong></li><li><a href="http://openj-gate.org/"><strong>Open J-Gate</strong></a></li><li><strong><a href="http://pkp.sfu.ca/?q=harvester">PKP Open Archives Harvester</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.proquest.com/en-US/">ProQuest</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.oxbridge.com/SPDCluster/theSPD.asp">Standard Periodical Directory</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com/login">Ulrich's</a></strong></li><li><strong><a href="http://www.udltheses.com/MIDX10100">Universe Digital Library</a></strong></li></ul>Canadian Center of Science and Educationen-USApplied Physics Research1916-9639Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication. <br />Copyrights for articles published in CCSE journals are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.<br />Examples of Non-Constructive Proofs in Quantum Theory
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/54424
<p class="1Body">Unlike mathematics, in which the notion of truth might be abstract, in physics, the emphasis must be placed on algorithmic procedures for obtaining numerical results subject to the experimental verifiability. For, a physical science is exactly that: algorithmic procedures (built on a certain mathematical formalism) for obtaining verifiable conclusions from a set of basic hypotheses. By admitting non-constructivist statements, a physical theory loses its concrete applicability and thus verifiability of its predictions. Accordingly, the requirement of constructivism must be indispensable to any physical theory. Nevertheless, in at least some physical theories, and especially in quantum mechanics, one can find examples of non-constructive statements. The present paper demonstrates a couple of such examples dealing with macroscopic quantum states (i.e., with the applicability of the standard quantum formalism to macroscopic systems). As it is shown, in these examples the proofs of the existence of macroscopic quantum states are based on logical principles allowing one to decide the truth of predicates over an infinite number of things.</p>Arkady Bolotin
Copyright (c) 2015 Applied Physics Research
2015-11-302015-11-3081110.5539/apr.v8n1p1Dark Matter-Like Effects in Spiral Galaxies Caused by Intense Isotropic Background Radiation of Ultralong Wavelength Photons
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/55415
<p class="1Body">The rotation anomaly of outer branches of spiral galaxies can be explained on the basis by a gravitational theory published in 2008. It is based on the interaction of charges with electromagnetic radiation with ultralong wavelengths which were generated by the Big Bang and which are densely distributed in the expanding space. The cross section of the interaction of charges with these waves depends on the Rayleigh scattering governed by the well known - factor to the fourth, where ω is the frequency of the wave and ω<sub>p</sub> the “natural frequency” of the particle. Natural frequency means that charges respectively matter oscillate with higher frequency. The -factor implies an increase of the gravitation constant with increasing length of path in space and gives a possible explanation of why stars in outer spirals move with higher orbital velocity.</p>Christoph Schultheiss
Copyright (c) 2015 Applied Physics Research
2015-12-032015-12-0381710.5539/apr.v8n1p7A Bridge between Quantum Mechanics and Astronomy
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/54989
<p class="1Body">Small-scale physics called quantum mechanics, is still incompatible with large-scale physics as developed by Einstein in his general relativity theory. By using twin physics, which is a dualistic way of considering the universe, and following Einstein’s later advice it is possible to create a bridge between these extremes. The formulation is carried out using complementary language in which time and space necessarily occur as two distinct qualities, although they are treated analogously. The basic item in the theory is the Heisenberg unit, which has a constant amount of potential energy, and which is supplied with mathematical attributes; by interaction with another Heisenberg unit, these attributes are transformed into physical qualities. With this theory, a photon can be described such that its velocity is constant without using the related postulate, showing how the speed of light is the link between small- and large-scale physics. The Planck constant emerges from the explanation. The photon is accompanied by a so-called anti-photon, being a charged, massless particle, traveling with the same velocity and exchanging electromagnetic energy.</p>Anna C.M. Backerra
Copyright (c) 2015 Applied Physics Research
2015-12-212015-12-21811610.5539/apr.v8n1p16Dark Matter and Dark Energy as a Derivate from Cosmic Photon Radiation
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/55969
<p class="1Body">For many decades now, intensive efforts have been undertaken by physicists and cosmologists around the world to investigate dark matter (DM), without noticeable success to date. This situation leads me to believe that one of the assumptions underlying the current doctrine in physics may well be erroneous or incomplete <em>– </em>since a breakthrough in this field of physics and cosmology would otherwise surely have already taken place by now.</p><p class="1Body">For this year (2015) and the following two years, the CERN Nuclear Research Centre has set itself the task of using the LHC (now upgraded to 13 TeV) to investigate the still completely mysterious phenomenon of dark matter. The researchers at CERN favour the assumption – shared by the majority of physicists and cosmologists – that <strong>DM consists of massive non-baryonic particles (so-called WIMPs, Weakly Interacting Massive Particles)</strong> hitherto completely unknown to us, which produce a non-baryonic, static gravitational field distributed throughout the entire cosmos.</p><p class="1Body">I cast doubt on the above assumption that DM is massive in nature. As this paper will show, DM can be far better (and more simply) explained in terms of a non-massive gravitational derivate of those photons consumed in the expansion of cosmic space (by performing the work of expansion), those photons thereby being transformed into static physical quantities. This gravitational derivate creates a free gravitational field (decoupled from the other forces of nature) of non-baryonic, static nature, regionally varying in intensity, and this is known as <strong>dark matter</strong>.</p>Guido Zbiral
Copyright (c) 2015 Applied Physics Research
2015-12-282015-12-28814210.5539/apr.v8n1p42Increasing Ultrasonic Array Data Acquisition Rate through the use of Kasami Codes and the Maximum Entropy Method
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/56164
<p class="1Body">We suggest using sets of pseudo-orthogonal code with antenna arrays working in Full Matrix Capture (FMC) mode, to increase the rate of data acquisition. This allows the use of signals comprised of phase-manipulated Kasami sequences, specifically developed for CMDA technology. The use of the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) for decoding signals in lieu of matched filtration allows us to reduce noise level and increase time resolution in reflectors’ image. Additionally, to reduce noise level by more than 6 dB we suggest the use of various Kasami sequences for each position of an antenna array. Numerical and model experiments demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.</p>Eugeny BazulinAndrey Bazulin
Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Research
2016-01-042016-01-04814710.5539/apr.v8n1p47Nonlinear Electron Acoustic Waves in Dissipative Plasma with Superthermal Electrons
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/56906
The nonlinear properties of small amplitude electron-acoustic ( EA) solitary and shock waves in a homogeneous system of unmagnetized collisionless plasma consisted of a cold electron ﬂuid and superthermal hot electrons obeying superthermal distribution, and stationary ions have been investigated. A reductive perturbation method was employed to obtain the Kadomstev-Petviashvili-Burgers (KP-Brugers) equation. Some solutions of physical interest are obtained. These solutions are related to soliton, monotonic and oscillatory shock waves and their behaviour are shown graphically. The formation of these solutions depends crucially on the value of the Burgers term and the plasma parameters as well. By using the tangent hyperbolic (tanh) method, another interesting type of solution which is a combination between shock and soliton waves is obtained . The topology of phase portrait and potential diagram of the KP-Brugers equation is investigated.The advantage of using this method is that one can predict diﬀerent classes of the travelling wave solutions according to diﬀerent phase orbits. The obtained results may be helpful in better understanding of waves propagation in various space plasma environments as well as in inertial conﬁnement fusion laboratory plasmas.A. M. El-HanbalyE. K. El-ShewyA. I. KassemH. F. Darweesh
Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Research
2016-01-292016-01-29816410.5539/apr.v8n1p64Complement of Special Relativity and Limitation of General Relativity
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/56908
<p class="1Body">For a set of forces being in equilibrium, the equilibrium state will not vary from one observer to another. This generally acknowledged fact has been called as the Force Equilibrium Invariance Axiom. On the basis of this axiom, the force transformation formula can be derived when an object is in motion, so that the force, length, time and mass can be calculated as per the basic transformation formula for the special relativity. According to the results of experimental analysis obtained by J.C. Hafele and R.E. Keating, the concepts of absolute time delay and relative time delay have been put forward herein, so as to solve any problems on the traveling velocity and records of any object being in motion at the real-time. For the properties of the force, the force applied on an object being accelerated will be deemed as the energy transfer force, while the universal gravitation will be deemed as the applied force of field. Both forces have the different basic properties. It is unscientific to consider both forces being the same properties. Based on the Force Equilibrium Invariance Axiom, it is deduced that the gravitational mass can only be the constant irrelevant to the motion of an object. Therefore, the principle of equivalence will not be tenable in theory. Only if the motion velocity of an object is very small relative to the velocity of light, can the principle of equivalence be deemed being approximately tenable. Under this condition, the general relativity can be only consistent with the practical deducing principle. However, if the motion velocity of an object is relatively large, there will be a significant difference between the constant gravitational mass and the inertial mass; as a result, there may be a deviation between the inference on the general relativity and the practical deducing principle. Take the Black Hole as an example. Even if the Black Hole is made almost completely of neutrons, its actual volume is one million times greater than its theoretical volume. Therefore, it is concluded that the Black Hole cannot be deemed as the substance composed of real atoms. It also shows accordingly that, according to the general relativity of theoretical source of Black Hole, the analysis results obtained when an object is in motion at high-velocity can not conform to the reality.</p>KeXin Yao
Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Research
2016-01-292016-01-29818110.5539/apr.v8n1p81Atomic Mass: Origin, Units and Constants
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/56909
<p class="1Body">Absolute and relative atomic mass values are obtained in kg/atom, MeV, C, and u for the chemical elements. The results show that: (i) Absolute atomic mass value is, of course, given by the classical mass formula m = hϑ/c<sup>2</sup>; however, rotational speed per radius ω/r correlates with strain τ on the element’s intrinsic electromagnetic (e-m) transverse radiation to give the coefficient k whose value turns out to be atomic mass unit energy equivalent amu/eV = k = τ/(ω/r)<sup>½</sup>. (ii) Each component of the wave-particle doublet plays unique roles in atomic mass phenomenology; these roles readily account for H atom’s seeming fundamentality and preponderance of internal structures in virtually all particulate matter down to the electron. (iii) The mass constants amu/eV and amu/C are linear correlation coefficients of different dimensions of atomic units; the values are thus not specific to particular elements but obtainable from any element including the electron. (iv) The empirical expression e- = F/N<sub>A</sub> is incorrect; theoretically, charge q = m<sub>r</sub>F = m<sub>abs</sub>N<sub>A</sub>F. The error translates to values of N<sub>A</sub>, m<sub>e</sub>, and e/m<sub>e</sub> that are twenty orders of magnitude lower than theoretical values, e.g., e<sup>-</sup><sub>theor.</sub> = 47.062 C c.f. e<sup>-</sup><sub>lit.</sub> = 1.6022 x 10<sup>-19</sup> C. It is posited that the charge determinants ω and τ, might be suppressed or virtually nullified in an external e-m environment above some threshold voltage. (v) The error reflects also in all empirical E/c<sup>2</sup> values. A comparison of empirical and theoretical quantitative expressions for evaluating gravitational (gm) from electrostatic (E/c<sup>2</sup>) atomic mass shows that the former redeems the inherent error to retrieve proximate gm from E/c<sup>2</sup> value. (vi) Given the current literature E/c<sup>2</sup> values, the electron waveform mass does converge with the photon’s value, i.e., m<sub>w(e) </sub>≅ m<sub>photon</sub>. It is submitted, therefore, that particle physics has already struck matter’s fundamental unit in the photon mass, maybe unknowingly for lack of litmus test.</p>O. P. Obande
Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Research
2016-01-292016-01-29819210.5539/apr.v8n1p92Approximate Inertial Coordinate System Selections for Rotation Problems - The Gravitational Field of the Celestial Body Higher than the Object Being Rotated
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/56911
<p class="1Body">Selection of the coordinate system is essential for rotation problems. Otherwise, mistakes may occur due to inaccurate measurement of angular speed. Approximate inertial coordinate system selections for rotation problems should be the gravitational field of the celestial body higher than the object being rotated: (1) the Earth fixed Cartesian coordinate system for normal rotation problem; (2) heliocentric - geocentric Cartesian coordinate system for satellites orbiting the Earth; (3) the Galaxy Heart - heliocentric Cartesian coordinates for Earth's rotation around the Sun. In astrophysics, mass calculation error and angular velocity measurement error lead to a black hole conjecture.</p>Zifeng Li
Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Research
2015-01-292015-01-298110210.5539/apr.v8n1p102Introduction to the Coherent States Approach for Solving Non-linear Physical Problems
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/54834
We summarize some crucial results from mathematical models that help us understand the relevance of gener-alized coherent states (GCS), a fundamental method used for the description of non-linear problems in physics. We mainly concentrate our review in the following models: ferromagnetism, nonlinear Schr¨odinger equation with external potential, nonlinear quantum oscillators, Bose - Einstein condensation (BEC) and the DNA quasi-spin model. Such models and some applications of the wide variety these involve are outlined. As variational trial states, the coherent states (CS) allow the estimation of the ground state energies and properties, yielding results which become exact in a number of nonlinear diﬀerential equations for dynamical variable of each model. Mainly we concentrate our review on two types of coherent states, The ﬁrst one are based on the Heisenberg - Weyl group where it is applied the bosonization eﬀect. The second one is based on the SU(2)/U(1) Lie group. For this case when the Hamiltonian and all physical operators are constructed by the elements of a Lie algebra, the generalized coherent states approach is directly applied without bozonization.Omar Pavon TorresManuel Davila DavilaMaximo A. Aguero Granados
Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Research
2016-01-292016-01-298110610.5539/apr.v8n1p106Comprehensive Analysis of the Failure of Intuition in Elementary Rigid Body Dynamics
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/56912
<p class="1Body">This article provides a thorough and comprehensive analysis of an elementary problem in rigid body dynamics, involving a projectile and a rod on a smooth table. The problem presented is an extension of a problem taken from an undergraduate physics textbook. This paper presents some generalisations to the problem, namely the unevenness (non-uniformity) of the rod’s mass distribution, the elasticity of the collision, and the case where the rod is pivoted. This paper presents nice analytical steps that address some misconceptions in students’ way of thinking as well as the failure of intuition when it comes to solving physics problems which necessarily require mathematical approach. The result is quite surprising and counterintuitive as it goes against our intuition with daily experience involving doors and levers.</p>Bernard Ricardo
Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Research
2016-01-292016-01-298112510.5539/apr.v8n1p125Effect of Recombination between a Molecular Ion and an Electron on Radial Dose in the Irradiation of a Heavy Ion
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/56913
<p class="1Body">This paper discusses the effect of recombination between a molecular ion and a free electron on radial dose in the irradiation of a heavy ion through simulations. This irradiation produces molecular ions and free electrons due to the heavy ion impact ionization. The composition electric field, which is formed from these molecular ions, traps some of free electrons and these trapped free electrons increase radial dose near the heavy ion path. These trapped electrons also cause the recombination and that the recombination enhances radial dose.</p>Kengo Moribayashi
Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Research
2016-01-292016-01-298113810.5539/apr.v8n1p138Defect Diffusion Model of InGaAs/InP Semiconductor Laser Degradation
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/56914
<p class="1Body">To enable high-performance fiber to the x (FTTx) and datacenter networks, it is important to achieve reliable and stable optical components over time. Laser diode is the essential building block of the optical components. Degradation analysis is critical for overall successful reliability design. In this paper, we study the modelling and experimental data of the InGaAs/InP laser degradation. We present a defect diffusion model that involves three propagation media (p-InGaAs contact, p-InP cladding and multi-quantum wells). We propose a simple constitutive equation based on the Gauss error function to describe the defect propagation. The physical model assumes that the p-InGaAs is the rate-limiting factor for the defect diffusion process.</p>Jack Jia-Sheng HuangYu-Heng JanDawei RenYiChing HsuPing SungEmin Chou
Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Research
2016-01-292016-01-298114910.5539/apr.v8n1p149Differential Calculus for Differential Equations, Special Functions, Laplace Transform
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/56596
<img src="/journal/public/site/images/blj/abstract2.jpg" alt="" />Do Tan Si
Copyright (c) Applied Physics Research
2016-01-292016-01-298115810.5539/apr.v8n1p158Four Blunders in the Electroweak Unification
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/56916
<p class="1Body">We derive the Higgs mass to be 123 GeV; we also show that the standard electroweak theory is false by highlighting the fact that the photon nevertheless receives a rest mass along with the Z boson despite the linear transformation known as the Weinberg angle.</p>Gregory L. Light
Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Research
2016-01-292016-01-298118810.5539/apr.v8n1p188Reviewer Acknowledgements for Applied Physics Research, Vol. 8, No. 1
http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/56967
<div>Reviewer Acknowledgements for Applied Physics Research, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2016</div>Lily Green
Copyright (c) 2016 Applied Physics Research
2016-01-312016-01-318119410.5539/apr.v8n1p194